According to a study by the Journal of International Economics, NAFTA has reduced pollution from the U.S. manufacturing sector: “On average, nearly two-thirds of the reductions in fine coarse particulate matter (PM10) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the U.S. manufacturing sector are due to NAFTA trade liberalization between 1994 and 1998.  According to a 2013 article by Jeff Faux by the Economic Policy Institute, California, Texas, Michigan and other countries with a high concentration of manufacturing jobs have been the hardest hit by NAFTA job losses.  According to a 2011 article by EPI economist Robert Scott, the trade deal “lost or ousted” some 682,900 U.S. jobs.  Recent studies were consistent with Congressional Research Service reports that NAFTA had only a modest influence on manufacturing employment and that automation accounted for 87% of manufacturing job losses.  NAFTA was the first U.S. free trade agreement to contain environmental provisions.
The United States could attempt to keep NAFTA contracting parties in more enforceable environmental provisions, such as those contained in recent free trade agreements, which would require the parties to adopt, enforce, not delineate their environmental laws in order to attract trade and investment, to implement certain MEAs to which it has acceded, and other provisions.102 NAFTA parties may also attempt to strengthen cooperation to attract investment and trade, and other provisions. address environmental violations, such as trafficking in endangered species and illegal fishing; and support inclusive and transparent policy-making in the future through rules requiring the publication of laws and regulations and by promoting broad public participation in policy-making. The debate on the impact of NAFTA on signatory countries continues. While since the implementation of NAFTA, the United States, Canada and Mexico have experienced all the economic growth, higher wages and increased trade, experts disagree on how much the agreement has actually contributed to these benefits, if any, in terms of jobs in American manufacturing, immigration and consumer goods prices. The results are difficult to isolate and other important developments have taken place on the continent and around the world over the past quarter century. Nevertheless, NAFTA was an ongoing objective in the broader free trade debate. President Donald J. Trump says he has undermined jobs and production in the United States, and in December 2019, his government struck an updated version of the pact with Canada and Mexico, now known as the US-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA).