However, all of these objectives are entirely objective if they are not reflected in ambitious measures that countries are beginning to take, including their COVID-19 stimulus plans and the countries of the national climate plans for 2030, which will be updated this year as part of the Paris Agreement. To date, 15 people have done so and another 130 have pledged to follow suit. It will be essential to ensure that they are implemented by COP26 in order to put climate change on the right track. In September 2019, UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres convened a climate summit in New York to bring countries together towards higher ambitions in 2020. The world`s major emitters have not presented substantial emission reduction plans, but 65 countries have announced plans to improve their NPNPs by the end of 2020. With the creation of a Climate Ambition Alliance, 66 countries have announced plans to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050. The general scientific opinion is that an increase in global temperatures of more than 2 degrees Celsius would be a disaster for the Earth – and would cause serious natural disasters, a molten Arctic and possible mass extinction. If the entire planet is in danger, it needs the whole world to fight climate change. The final goal of the agreement is to limit the increase in global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius during this century. Although the difference of 0.5 degrees does not seem like a large one, it would have a dramatic impact on deep nations and coral reefs. The Paris Conference was the 21st meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), known as COP 21.
The conference concluded a round of negotiations that began in 2011 in Durban, South Africa, with the aim of concluding a new legal agreement between national governments to strengthen the global response to climate change. 150 heads of state and government participated in the opening day of the conference. In July 2020, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) announced that it would estimate a 20% probability of global warming relative to pre-industrial values of more than 1.5 degrees Celsius in at least one year between 2020 and 2024, with 1.5 degrees Celsius as a key threshold under the Paris Agreement.   At the 2011 UN Climate Change Conference, the Durban Platform (and the ad hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action) was established to negotiate a legal instrument for climate action from 2020. The resulting agreement is expected to be adopted in 2015.  A preliminary inventory-impacting study was published in Nature Communications in April 2020. Based on a public policy database and a multi-model scenario analysis, the authors showed that the implementation of current strategies by 2030 leaves an average emission gap of 22.4 to 28.2 GtCO2eq, with optimal means to achieve targets well below 2 degrees Celsius and 1.5 degrees Celsius. If national contributions were fully implemented, this gap would be reduced by one-third.
The countries assessed did not achieve their promised contributions with implemented measures (implementation deficit) or experienced a gap in ambition with optimal paths to well below 2oC. The study showed that all countries should accelerate the implementation of renewable technology strategies, while improving efficiency in emerging and fossil fuel-dependent countries is particularly important.  Finally, instead of giving China and India a passport to pollution, as Trump asserts, the pact is the first time these two major developing countries have agreed on concrete and ambitious climate commitments.